Archive | November, 2017

The Next Level Zumba

Zumba is a dance form related to movements of body such that it gets toned up. Dejure it defines the body movements to intercept the right muscles. In contrast to the conventional exercises it appreciates the music with coordinated body movements and posture. A dance form signifies the eternity and thus refreshes the mood of a person indulging into this form of exercise. Using your own body weight you would experience balance, tone, endurance and definition. It is quite similar to aerobic yet different; it incorporates aerobic movements into one single dance form on exceptional music like salsa, hip hop, mambo, flamenco, tango and others.

Zumba workout leaves you energized for the whole day. Once you get used to it, it becomes a routine and one gets used to the music and exercise form. It acts like a mood alleviator. The body movements inspired by latin dance forms integrate music and exercise such that it doesn’t feel like a workout. It also has meditative qualities associated with the dance cum exercise form. Started in 1990s by Colombian fitness instructor Beto Perez it has spread like a wild fire across the globe. Zumba the word actually means nothing but it has become a catch phrase.

The workout typically lasts for about 30 to 45 minutes, in which you alternate your body to slow and fast paced rhythms such that it burns your calories up and tones up your body. This form of exercise is more upbeat approach towards working out. Various level of zumba has been designed keeping in mind the adults, kids, and the youth. The workout is such that it uses your body’s own resistance to tone and sculpt the muscles.

Traditional work out methods for building strength are more rigid in nature; however they have evolved into more new concepts like zumba which add more flexibility to the body while maintaining the strength. Zumba with toning sticks is a one up level after you complete the initial level. Toning sticks are 2.5 pounds in weight which are used while zumba workout. These toning sticks help you buy more weight resistance to your workout along with your body weight resistance.

“The focus of zumba classes is on all aspects of fitness like cardio-vascular, balance, flexibility, muscular conditioning and coordination. Designed for older adults & kids the zumba classes develop key elements such as leadership, team work, confidence, self-esteem, memory, creativity, coordination, balance, cultural awareness & respect”

Zumba teaches body to flow to the music teaches mind to concentrate and meditate; it takes you to the next level of fitness where body and mind both work in ultimate coordination. The next level zumba programs you to achieve the high levels of fitness and experience great strength and vigour.

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Ayurvedic and Herbal Home Remedies For Cough Treatment

Cough is not a disease actually; it is a symptom of any kind of obstruction in the respiratory tract. Coughs can originate in the pharynx, bronchial tubes, trachea and the pleura lining of the lungs.

In Ayurveda, coughing is known as Kaasa roga. It is predominantly an effect of the vitiation of the vata dosha. But the pitta and the kapha doshas can also cause coughs. Based on the causative factor, there are five types of coughs – vataja, pittaja, kaphaja, kshataja and kshayaja.

Vataja cough is dry and hacking in nature. There is little phlegm observed. Side symptoms are headache and pain in the chest. In pittaja cough, there is yellow sputum which may sometimes have streaks of blood in it. Other symptoms like fever, excessive thirst and burning sensation in the mouth and the pharynx are also felt. In kaphaja cough, there is a thick mucus discharge, which is slimy and white in color. This cough makes the whole body feel heavy.

Kshataja cough is vata vitiation to the extreme limit. There is dyspnoea and blood in the sputum. Kshayaja cough is a very serious kind of cough in which pus is observed in the sputum.

(1) Useful Herbs in the Treatment of Cough

– Bay Berry (Myrica nagi) The bay berry is very effective in curing throat congestions which causes the coughs. It can even cure coughs that are caused due to chronic bronchitis. Its bark is the effective part which is to be taken in the form of a powder.

– Belleric Myroblan (Terminalia belerica) The fruit of the belleric myroblan has excellent curative powers in the treatment of coughs caused due to catarrh.

– Betel (Piper betle) Betel leaves when crushed, made into paste with water and applied externally on the chest have amazing effects in the treatment of coughs.

– Butea (Butea monosperma) Butea leaves can treat congested and inflamed throats. They are effective in the treatment of coughs and sore throats. The leaves are boiled in water. This solution is used as a mouthwash to get the desired effects. Coughs caused due to septic and sore throats are treated in this manner.

– Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Cloves can reduce the irritation of the throat. Cloves are more effective if the coughs are produced due to inflammation of the pharynx.

– Euphorbia (Euphorbia hirta) Euphorbia is a very potent medicine in the treatment of all kinds of cough. It enjoys a special position in Indian herbology in treating the coughs caused due to colds, asthma and bronchitis.

– Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) Fenugreek seeds are effective in the removal of coughs that are associated with sore throats. The seeds are boiled in water for half an hour and this water is used to take gargles.

– Garlic (Allium sativum) Garlic is an excellent remedy for whooping cough. The syrup of two to three pieces of garlic must be taken two to three times a day in the case of whooping cough. If the symptoms still persist, or if it is a severe cough, then the dosage must be increased.

– Henna (Lawsonia inermis) Henna is a definite remedy for sore throat and the related cough problems.

(2) Dietary Treatments for Cough

– Cold foods must be avoided as these can aggravate the throat further. Water that is drunk normally also must be warmed a little before drinking.

– Use old rice in the diet. Wheat can also be used beneficially.

– Do not consumer any fruits or vegetables that can cause excessive cooling of the body. Foods like cucumbers, green bananas, papayas, watermelons and oranges must be strictly avoided.

– Fennel seeds are effective in the treatment of cough. These must be taken along with figs for better results.

(3) Ayurvedic Treatment for Cough

– Ayurvedic doctors prescribe slightly different kinds of medicines depending on which type of cough is observed. a) If the cough is of vataja type, then kanakasava or kantakaryavaleha are prescribed. b) If the cough is of pittaja type, then sitopaladi choorna is preferred in conjunction with chandansava or vasarishta. Vasavaleha and matulungadi avaleha may also be prescribed. b) If the cough is of kaphaja type, then trikatu, triphala, guggulu and shilajit are the drugs of choice.

(4) Home Medications

– The pulp of the fruit of the belleric myroblan is mixed with long pepper, salt and honey. This is to be taken once a day.

– Clove oil mixed with garlic and honey helps to eliminate spasmodic coughs which are produced in tuberculosis, asthma and bronchitis. This mixture must be taken every night before going to bed.

– Prepare an extract of ginger. Sweeten this with honey. Take this in a teaspoonful quantity three to four times a day. There will be confirmed positive results.

– Prepare a mixture of extract of tulsi (holy basil) leaves with ginger and honey. This is better than the above method for the treatment of coughs. This mixture must be taken if the cough is severe, and is caused due to some serious ailment such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, etc.

– Make a decoction of licorice in honey. Consume this decoction so that it makes good contact with the inner lining of the throat. This will relieve cough and the feeling of irritation in the throat.

– A very simple way to stop coughs in the night is to place three to four pieces of long pepper in the mouth. Chew them slightly so that their extract oozes into the mouth. As long as the peppers remain in the mouth, the urge to cough will be suppressed and you will get a restful sleep at night.

– Figs are known to clear the buildup of phlegm in the chest cavity. This brings about an elimination of cough.

– Make a powder of cardamom and dissolved it in water. Take this thrice in a day. This will keep all types of cough at bay.

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Top Five Benefits of a Hot Towel Shave

There’s a reason the best barbershops in town offer hot towel shave services for their male clients. Not only is it a relaxing experience that results in smooth skin, but it also has multiple health benefits. Below are the five advantages to utilizing this service once per week.

It Opens Up Your Pores

Barbers have special cabinets that keep towels heated to the desired temperature. When these items are placed on a man’s face prior to a trim, the heat begins to open the pores after only a couple of minutes. The hairs also start to soften, which is prime time to get out the razor and begin the shaving.

It Provides a Closer Shave

Once the hairs are soft, and the pores are open, the shaving can begin. It is best to always move the razor in the direction of the grain. It will become noticeable right away that one is able to obtain a closer shave with this method than simply slathering on a handful of cream and scraping away. Afterward, take a look in the mirror and notice how much healthier the skin looks. It will also feel extremely smooth to the touch.

It Exfoliates

In addition to clipping your whiskers, the hot towel shave also doubles as an exfoliating treatment. This is because the blades remove up to four layers of dead skin cells with each swipe. Making this process a weekly event is ideal as it allows the healthy skin cells to breathe. Skin will appear more radiant and attractive to everyone that walks by.

It Removes In-Grown Hairs

Another plus associated with this type of weekly grooming is the removal of ingrown hairs. While using your straight razor, also sometimes referred to as a cutthroat razor, you’ll notice a few blood spots appear. These are actually caused by the roots of ingrown hairs being pulled out. There’s no need to fret, though, as once the routine is complete, the blood spots and any bumps that made an appearance during the trim will quickly dissipate.

It Creates a Resistance to Razor Burn

You may experience mild irritation, known in the scientific community as Pseudofolliculitis barbae, the first time you try a hot towel shave. This won’t always be the case. The skin on a man’s face will begin to develop a resistance to the itching, burning, and bumps that often show up after the first few treatments.

If anyone wishes to try this at home but does not own a special heating cabinet, a vegetable steamer works well. Always remember to remove the hot towels with a pair of tongs once heated and then wave them around for a few seconds to make them a tolerable temperature that won’t cause a burn to the skin. Of course, they do sell steamers that were created for this purpose online. This is a great option for anyone who plans on continuing this procedure for years to come.

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Gestalt Therapy And Hypnosis

The Gestalt approach to therapy can be termed “phenomenological-existential” as it is concerned with an awareness of the here-and-now, working away from concepts and towards pure awareness (Clarkson, 1989). By the client becoming aware of their thoughts, feelings, etc the goal is for the individual to achieve insight into the situation under examination. As Yontef (1993) writes, insight is gained by studying the phenomomenological focusing, experimenting, reporting, and dialogue of the client. The philosophy behind this approach is that most people do not function in the world based on how the world, including themselves, is, but through a filter of self-deception, whereby one does not have a clear picture of oneself in relation to the world. Living that is not based on the truth of oneself leads to feelings of dread, guilt, and anxiety (Yontef, 1993).

The historical antecedents of Gestalt therapy are the experiences of its co-founder, Fritz Perls. Trained as a psychoanalyst, Perls rebelled against the dogmatic style of Freud’s approach (as had other notable founders of schools of psychotherapy, Jung and Adler. In the preface to the 1969 edition of “Ego, Hunger and Aggression” Perls wrote of this period of time as follows, “Started seven years of useless couch life.” (Perls, 1969)), and incorporated aspects of holism into the belief that ultimately the individual is responsible for creating his or her existence.

Additionally, the early decades of the 20th century are notable for their refutation of Newtonian positivism and its replacement with phenomenology. These two themes were then combined within the scaffolding of Gestalt psychology to produce an approach centred on the individual’s relationship to their existence. The structure that Gestalt psychology offered was that perception should be considered as the recognition of patterns and relationships between items in the perceptual world which fulfils the central human need of giving meaning to perceptions, experiences and existence (Clarkson, 1989).

Reductionist approaches could neither account for the richness of perception, and its immediacy (for example, see Koffka, 1935; Gibson, 1966), nor take into account the importance of the observer. This led Perls to the idea that the actual awareness of an individual is more trustworthy than an interpretation of any data that a person might provide a therapist with and is primarily a description of movements between ‘figure’ and ‘ground’. The figure is the item of attentional focus at any one time, and the ground is the remainder of perceptual awareness. These movements, or ‘cycles of experience’ can become disrupted by being incomplete or unresolved and it is this ‘unfinished business’ which Gestalt therapy attempts to address. These ideas probably did not constitute a therapeutic approach until 1951 when Perls opened the New York Institute for Gestalt Therapy, despite the fact that the first recognisable Gestalt therapy book was published in the 1940’s (Perls, 1969).

Accompanying this combination of ideas, based on the thinking of Gestalt psychologists, philosophers (e.g., Lewin, 1952), and politicians (e.g., Smuts), was the fundamental concept of the person as basically healthy, striving for balance, health, and growth (Clarkson, 1989). The unfinished business referred to earlier is seen as an obstacle to these processes, restricting the person’s ability to function fully, often termed by Gestalt therapists as ‘dis-ease’. Van de Riet (Van de Riet et al., 1980) encapsulates the idea that dis-ease is a consequence when people do not experience themselves as being psychologically and physiologically in balance with their environment.

“As action, contact, choice and authenticity characterize health in gestalt therapy, so stasis, resistance, rigidity and control, often with anxiety, characterize the state called ‘dis-ease'”

The stasis, resistance, rigidity, and control prevent graceful flow through cycles of experience.

Having briefly outlined the core of Gestalt therapy it is necessary to consider some of the techniques that Gestalt therapists use in order to consider how they might be incorporated into hypnotherapy. Although there are techniques that are closely associated with a Gestalt approach, there are two caveats we must bear in mind. First, as Berne (1970) noted, gestalt therapy does use any techniques exclusively:

“Dr. Perls is a learned man. He borrows from or encroaches upon psychoanalysis, transactional analysis, and other systematic approaches. But he knows who he is and does not end up as an eclectic. In his selection of specific techniques, he shares with other ‘active’ psychotherapists the ‘Moreno’ problem: the fact that nearly all known ‘active’ techniques were first tried out by Dr. J. R. Moreno in psychodrama, so that it is difficult to come up with an original idea in this regard” (Berne, 1970: 163-4).

Second, that in Gestalt therapy, technique is considered secondary to the relationship developed between the therapist and the client, as Resnick (1984) writes:

“every Gestalt therapist could stop doing any Gestalt technique that had ever been done and go right on doing Gestalt therapy. If they couldn’t, then they weren’t doing Gestalt therapy in the first place. They were fooling around with a bag of tricks and a bunch of gimmicks” (1984: 19).

Based on these two caveats we might argue that anything of an ‘active’ nature which is incorporated into hypnotherapy would constitute Gestalt, or alternatively that without explicit training in the Gestalt client-therapist relationship there is nothing we could do which would be Gestalt. However, as the spirit of Gestalt therapy is very much identified by its use of specific techniques that is the approach that will be taken in the following discussion.

The techniques that are associated with Gestalt therapy are closely related to the idea that clients should want to work towards self-awareness through a mastery of their awareness processes. This is in contrast to patients who firstly are actually seeking relief from discomfort, although they may claim that they wish to change their behaviour, and secondly clients who expect that relief will come via the efforts of the therapist. Thus, Gestalt therapy is “an exploration rather than a direct modification of behaviour…the goal is growth and autonomy” (Yontef, 1993). The techniques are modifications and elaborations of the basic question, “What are you experiencing now?” and the instruction, “Try this experiment, or pay attention to that, and see what you become aware of or learn” (Zimberoff & Hatman, 2003).

Perhaps the most well known of all techniques that are identified as Gestalt is the empty chair. This is where clients project their representation of a person or an object, or part of themselves into an empty chair and they then present a dialogue between what is projected into the chair, and themselves. In some cases the client moves between the chairs, but either way, the idea is that inner conflicts become expressed and so the client heightens their awareness of them. This in turn forces the client to take responsibility for their difficulties so that they can make choices to resolve the sources of unfinished business (Stevens, 1975). As Becker (1993) writes, this is the whole point of Gestalt, to “take people who are conditioned and automatic and put them in some kind of aegis over themselves.”

Similar to the empty chair, another common technique is known as topdog/underdog. A dialogue is performed between two aspects of the client’s personality, the topdog representing the introjecting demander of perfection, expressed by “should” and “must”, and the underdog, which is a manifestation of resistance to external demands. Through the dialogue “resolution, compromise, understanding or permanent divorce becomes possible” (Clarkson, 1989). This is attained by the individual becoming aware of their internal battles, which often lead to feelings of guilt, anxiety, and depression.

The Gestaltist focus on awareness is not confined to awareness of cognitive processes, such as dialogue, but also physiological processes through a process termed bodywork. This involves the client consciously noting where they experience tension in particular situations, or how their pattern of breathing changes. Once aware they can learn strategies to reduce these reactions, which have produced both physical and mental discomfort.

As Zinker (1978) writes, “this may include the person’s awareness of his body, its weight on the chair, its position in space, its minute sounds and movements.” Here the individual is taking responsibility for their body and taking charge of choosing how they want to react. Sometimes these tensions are based on a preoccupation with earlier circumstances. If the client is not responding to the current circumstances then they are seen as projecting the past to the present, so old patterns of responding, rather than new, experimental approaches are dominating their life (Parlett & Hemming, 2002). Working to release the physical manifestations of those old patterns can lead to greater engagement and awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings (Zimberoff & Hatman, 2003). This approach is also known as establishing sensation function (Clarkson, 1989) and is considered useful for clients who have become ‘alienated from their senses’ or those with narcissistic attributes who have ‘experienced it all’ (Clarkson, 1989).

The importance of bodywork is made clear by Becker (1993) who suggests that physical expressions are closer to truth because the mind is engaged in deception and sabotage: Perl’s basic assumption was that the body and its total processes are somehow anterior to and bigger than the mind. Gestalt conceives of the mind as an interference, as a way of blocking the total momentum of the organism in some way. Not only that, but the mind is not even the noble part of the organism that we always thought it was. For most people the mind and the creations of the mind work against the body. They work against the best interests of the total person.

In line with other psychodynamic approaches, Gestalt therapy includes dream work. The Gestalt position is dissimilar to Freud, in that Perls did not think of the unconscious as an inaccessible region of the mind which dreams could provide access to if interpreted correctly – Freud’s ‘royal road to the unconscious’ was Perl’s royal road to integration. His view was more in line with Jung, who saw dreams as existential messages for the dreamer. In dream work the client is typically asked to relate the dream in the present tense as if they were experiencing the dream in that moment. From this the client develops an awareness of the existential message and how it consists of projected parts of the self.

The above descriptions of some of the techniques associated with Gestalt therapy should neither be considered exhaustive nor exclusive. As cited earlier, Resnick (1984) amongst others clearly believes that Gestalt therapy is not and cannot be tied to particular techniques, it is about the relationship between the client and the therapist.

An important part of this relationship is that the therapist is acting to guide the client towards greater self-awareness, responsibility and ownership of emotions, thoughts, sensations etc in order to complete any ‘unfinished business’ so that s/he may move smoothly through cycles of experience. The experienced therapist is able to adapt to the particular client in order to achieve this, relying on a wealth of techniques and skills. This essence of Gestalt therapy allies it more closely with cognitive behavioural approaches than typical psychodynamic methods because it relies less on interpretation of the client and more on their active participation. It is perhaps this that makes it possible to incorporate aspects of Gestalt therapy into hypno-therapeutic practice.

Interestingly Levendula (1963) suggests the view that a Gestalt therapist would be in a more advantageous position if he would combine his approach with hypnotic techniques. For example, the Gestalt therapist teaches the increasing of awareness through experimental exercises. The hypnotherapists can achieve this much more easily by directing the patient’s attention to become sharply aware of an idea or sensation or memory which thereby becomes a “bright Gestalt” while the rest of the perceptual field recedes into a background. The hypnotic state itself corresponds to the Gestalt-background principle, and the Gestalt formation becomes more or less an automatic function of it. …the combination of Gestalt therapeutic principles with hypnosis enriches both approaches.

From this it is clear that Gestaltists are being advised to incorporate hypnotherapy into their practice. The following discussion will consider whether hypnotherapists can introduce aspects of Gestalt therapy into their work.

One of the central tenets of Gestalt therapy is that clients experience events in the present, that is they re-enact past events in the present. By re-living them they can focus on their experiences, both psychological and physiological and thus gain understanding. Awareness was considered “the key to unlock insight and ultimately bring behaviour change” (Zimberoff, & Hartman 2003). Bringing the experienced past into the experiential present is one important property of hypnosis.

Through hypnotic age regression, working with dreams etc clients can re-experience events that have occurred at some other time as if they were happening in the here and now. This is not merely a cognitive reliving of a copy of the event, but a fully nuanced resurrection of the experience. As Zimberoff, & Hartman (2003) state, “Keeping the client’s awareness on concrete detail is a constant in hypnotic age regressions, because it promotes presentness emotionally and viscerally (emphasis in original). Of equal importance is that the client’s awareness can be focused on different aspects of their experience through repeated re-experiencing of it, allowing for a detailed, and concrete re-living of the experience in all its original strength and from physiological and psychological perspectives. This then fulfils Rosen’s (1972) view that “Patients move best when they are moved” (emphasis in original).

It is clear that the Gestalt concern with realistic, present, re-experiencing of events is an important aspect of hypnosis. The concerns of Gestalt therapy with direct insight, rather than insight through interpretation would be a novel addition to hypnotherapy. To include this perspective is a philosophical and conceptual shift rather than a technical one and depends on the therapist’s own preferences. However it is quite possible to achieve.

Hypnosis is also useful in intensifying aspects of an experience, by directing the client to pay closer attention to particular details. For example, someone who wishes to stop smoking might be asked to strongly feel the sense of relief and strength from being able to take deep breaths of fresh, clean air. Greenberg and Malcolm (2002) have demonstrated that success in using such techniques as the empty chair are at least partially determined by the degree of emotional arousal experienced during the use of this technique. Here we can envisage that the client can be asked to imagine a dialogue, or in the case of multiple actors in the re-lived scenario, a conversation, where they can concentrate on aspects of themselves or others that are blocking their ability to resolve past issues.

Many hypnotic techniques are relatively passive in that the client is asked to view an event, rather than to participate in it, but there is no conceptual reason why this more active, almost didactic approach could not become a more integrated aspect of hypnotherapeutic practice. Indeed, in clients who are able to speak whilst hypnotised it might allow the therapist even greater understanding of the experiences that the client is reliving, and for the therapist to take a more active, flexible role in directing the client’s interactions.

As described earlier, Gestalt therapy makes use of experimentation in order for client’s to experience new sensations, and to become aware of old patterns of responding. For this to work we are effectively asking the client to suspend disbelief, for example to suspend the idea that they cannot say something to their parent. This may be difficult for some clients, especially where they have developed strong conscious strategies to protect them from predicted negative outcomes. Hypnosis, by inducing an altered state of consciousness, may be able to circumvent these strategies, allowing the client to explore options in a safe fantasy world that is experienced as vivid and real. S/he can then explore conversations with others, actions etc that may not be considered options when in a non-hypnotic state.

As suggested earlier, this active participation of clients is not common, but there is no reason why clients who have strong powers of visualisation cannot be directed under hypnosis to engage in experimentation. Usefully as a single scene can be replayed many times under hypnosis it allows the client to perform a variety of experiments and to compare and contrast the resultant emotions etc. Naturally they can also be directed to pay close attention to the details of these new experiences, so that they can be vividly recalled post-hypnotically.

As Gestalt therapy is primarily concerned with the client’s willingness to take responsibility, and the therapist’s ability to develop novel ways in which the client can come face-to-face with aspects of their life they have projected onto others, or denied control of, the main way in which hypnotherapy can incorporate aspects of Gestalt technique is twofold. Firstly hypnotherapeutic practitioners must be trained in Gestalt conceptual philosophy so they fully understand their role, and have the intuition and flexibility to carry it out in a range of situations and across a broad spectrum of clients. Secondly, just as Freud selected patients who were willing to accept his fundamental law of psychotherapy, perhaps the hypnotherapist must be selective at consultation with clients who show a motivation to change and a willingness to take responsibility for that change. Without these two features hypnotherapy cannot truly address “the key problem of people in our times…inner deadness” (Clinebell, 1981).


Becker, E. (1993). Growing up rugged: Fritz Perls and Gestalt therapy. The Gestalt Journal, 16(2). Available at

Berne, E. (1970). Review of gestalt Therapy Verbatim by F. Perls (1969). American Journal of Psychiatry, 10, 163-4.

Clarkson, P. (1989). Gestalt counselling in action. London: Sage.

Clinebell, H.J. (1981). Contemporary growth therapies. NY: Abingdon Press.

Gibson, J.J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Greenberg, L.Sl. & Malcolm, W. (2002). Resolving unfinished business: relating process to outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 406-416.

Koffka, K. (1935). Principles of Gestalt psychology. NY: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Levendula, D. (1963). principles of Gestalt therapy in relation to hypnotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 6(1),22-26.

Lewin, K. (1952). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers. London: Tavistock Publications.

Parlett, M. & Hemming, J. (2002). Gestalt therapy. In W. Dryden (Ed.) Handbook of individual therapy. London: Sage.

Perls, F.S. (1969). Ego, hunger and aggression. NY: Vintage Books (first published in 1942).

Resnick, R.W. (1984). Gestalt therapy East and West: Bi-coastal dialogue, debate or debacle? Gestalt Journal, 7(1), 13-32.

Rosen, S. (1972). Recent experiences with Gestalt, encounter and hypnotic techniques. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 32, 90-105.

Stevens, J.O. (1975). Gestalt Is.Utah: real people Press.

Van de Riet, V., Korb, M.P., & Gorrell, J.J. (1980). gestalt therapy, an introduction. NY: Pergammon Press.

Yontef, G. M. (1993). Awareness, dialogue, and process: Essays on Gestalt therapy. Highland, NY: The Gestalt Journal Press.

Zimberoff, M.A. & Hartman, D. (2003). Gestalt therapy and heart-centred therapies. Journal of Heart-Centred Therapies, 6(1), 93-104.

Zinker, J. (1978). Creative process in Gestalt therapy. NY: Vintage Books.

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How to Lose Face Fat

Trying to Lose Face Fat? I know this situation sucks because my face is one of the first places I gain fat. I start to see my double chin and anxiety hits me. Some people or information you will find will suggest that you can reduce face fat by doing a series of exercises or by buying this product. Yes, I’ve even seen devices that go under your chin and supposedly by pressing you head down on this spring-loaded product, you will burn face fat. Unfortunately, all of this is a crock. The only real way to lose fact fat is to get your body fat to a low enough percentage that your face fat goes with it.

So what is the percentage that gets rid of face fat?

Well it differs for each person. For me, I have to get below 10% body fat before I don’t have more chins than…well, you know the joke. But in order to reduce your body fat percentage to a low enough number that you don’t have face fat, you will have to follow a diet that creates a calorie deficit. In other words, you have to eat fewer calories than you burn daily. To determine what this number is for you, check out my Metabolic Rate Calculator on my website.

This handy little calculator will tell you how many calories you need to eat if you want to burn a pound of fat a week. Then, you can take that information and plan to eat that number of calories or fewer. Once you lose enough body fat, your face fat will go with it. This is the only real way to lose face fat – other than expensive surgery to remove excess fat.

So are there any exercises you can do?

Exercise certainly comes into play here as well. The more you exercise, the more you create this calorie deficit because you are adding to the calories that you burn daily. An excellent exercise to do is any one that you will stick with. For me, swimming is the bee’s knees. For you it may be running or elliptical trainer. 

But to help you lose face fat the fastest, I’ll let you in on a little secret. Use interval training. An example of interval training would be running fast for a minute and then running an easy page for two minutes. That three-minute period is an interval. You can apply this to any cardiovascular exercise and it kicks the pants off of regular, boring cardio. In fact, studies have shown that cardiovascular interval training keeps your heart rate elevated for several hours after you finish your workout. This means you burn fat for longer, even after you are done exercising.

So that’s it – the real deal on how to lose face fat. I’m sorry to say there is no such thing as spot reduction, but by reducing your body fat percentage you can lose face fat and burn fat in other trouble areas at the same time.

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Arborist and Tree Stress Treatment

When a human suffers from an illness it is easy to detect because humans can communicate their discomfort to a doctor. The same thing does not apply to plants and trees because of their inability to communicate. Diagnosing tree problems requires professional expertise. Thus is anyone is looking for tree treatment then there are experts that can do this job. In this way you can easily take care of the fungi and pest related issues that are affecting the health of a tree.

The longer a plant or a tree’s ill-health remains undetected greater the risk that recovery period will be long and eradication from illness will be a stressful one for the tree. This is a job that can be handled by a certified arborist. A certified arborist will identify the root cause of the problem by determining whether the problem is a new development or an issue from the past that has flared up again. Pathology, entomology, climate horticultural practices, soil science, botany and the knowledge of trees are some of the areas which are needed for the proper diagnosis.

To avoid tree stress plant care is very important. Things like good soil, watering them and taking out the unwanted weeds basic essentials of good care. Steps like a yearly health diagnosis for trees and plants will go a long way in ensuring that your trees and plants remain healthy.

One of the important area is mitigation during tree construction. From the beginning of the project when you are constructing your home there should be a presence of an arborist who will actually identify the soil condition. This way soil compaction can be measured. There are lots of things like the damage roots, tree bark, automobiles and bulldozers can ruin the soil. Thus it would be better to hire the services of an arborist who will be completely responsible to ensure that after the trees and plants have been placed there would be no issue that would lead to ill-health.

Trees that are in stress and are sick are more likely to be infested with diseases and insect pests. Plant and tree sickness can arise due different environmental reasons such as excessive watering, little watering, excessive fertilizers, grade changes, soil compaction and ill-adapted plant varieties among others. The best arborists will advise you that the simple way to keep trees and plants healthy is to help them remain stress free. This way they have a better immune system that helps them fight diseases, pests and other infections.

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The Most Effective of All Natural Anxiety Cures is Acceptance

Living through an anxiety disorder can be horrifying! Anxiety, complete with its panic attacks, can be so overwhelming the sufferer doesn’t know where to turn because he or she thinks no one can possibly understand what he or she is going through. The sufferer even feels the family doctor would not understand.

Most people will try to hide their case of anxiety disorder from everyone they know. This happens because people don’t realize they are experiencing a disorder that is relatively common. Therefore, they think nobody will understand their anxiety and may actually believe they are somehow weak because their nerves have gotten the better of them.

Anxiety Can and Has Been Overcome Many Times

It is important the anxiety sufferer understand anxiety disorder, with its awful spells of panic is not an unusual disease. Many people have experienced it and in every case, it is considered a condition that can be beaten.

In winning the battle with anxiety disorder the first step requires resisting the temptation to fight the feelings it brings on. Fighting only intensifies anxiety and panic. While fighting makes anxiety worse, giving in to it to helps keep it under control. This is because adrenaline pumps through an anxiety sufferer’s bloodstream and this adrenaline brings about uncomfortable feelings. When we fight these unwanted feelings we cause more adrenaline to enter our bloodstream, and so a fear – adrenaline – fear cycle ensues.

The counterpart to fighting anxiety is running away from it. This doesn’t work either. Trying to ignore your symptoms or pretend they are not there is akin to running away from them. Trying to fight anxiety or running away from it will make more adrenaline flow and therefore cause more and more of these disquieting feelings.

Acceptance is The Key

Not running away or fighting the symptoms of anxiety means you are fulling realizing these symptoms are occurring. So, to realize they are happening, studying the feelings anxiety and panic brings on is helpful because this is the opposite of fighting or running away. When we don’t fight anxiety and we don’t run away from it, we will not be adding any adrenaline to our bloodstreams. Therefore, we will not be manufacturing more frightful feelings anxiety is known for bringing on.

Just make sure you know you are dealing with anxiety disorder. In other words, if a symptom such as chest pains is what you are experiencing, go to a medical facility to make sure it is an anxiety problem and not a heart problem you are having. Once assured your heart is good, you can go ahead and deal with the anxiety disorder.

Letting Anxiety Die

In conclusion, when an panic suffer learns how to prevent making the panic more intense, he or she is in recovery. The recovery won’t come overnight. However, the anxiety and panic will quickly lessen in severity because without additional fear of anxiety’s symptoms, adrenaline flow will be dying down instead of flaring up.

The bottom line is, the key to recovering from anxiety using natural means is learning how to accept the strange and unwanted; even sometimes tormenting feelings anxiety brings about.. The importance of not fighting or running away from panic and anxiety cannot be overstated. This acceptance is a necessary part of beating an anxiety disorder. Then, you must also let occasional attacks come back as they will and receive them as passively as you can. Realize you cannot control these symptoms and the anxiety disorder will die of natural causes.

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"Polynesian Bodies" – Why Polynesian Bodies Build Muscle Better

Polynesian people are descendants of those early mariners that crossed the great waters and became the original inhabitants of the South Pacific Islands. In order to survive those long cold oceanic journeys, their Polynesian bodies evolved to develop maximum muscle building capabilities as a means of generating and preserving body temperature.

This was a direct adaptation to an environmental factor. Those that could not adapt died, whereas the survivors carried with them genetic advantages, creating a hybrid body of sorts, capable of performing enormous feats of physical labor, on very little calories, and very little water.

Colonization of the Pacific Islands only encouraged the Polynesian body to propagate these gene characteristics, as the early Islanders literally hacked their homes out of the forests with their bare hands. Domesticating wildlife and horticulture, was a herculean feat, and the scarcity of fresh water developed a need for the Polynesian body to store fluids efficiently.

These early evolutionary patterns form the basis of the contemporary Polynesian body. It enables Polynesian bodies to:

1. Build muscle easily

2. Possess unique strength to mass capabilities

3. Withstand harsh environmental conditions more easily

4. Endure long periods with little food and little water

Unfortunately these adaptations also mean Polynesian bodies will

1. Store excess energy more easily in the form of body fat

2. Store excess water subcutaneously

3. Burn calories at a slower more gradual pace

In the absence of the extreme physical labors performed by our Polynesian ancestors, and the readily abundant food in western cultures, it is no surprise that Polynesian bodies have a tendency to gain unsightly body fat. This storage of excess energy was a survival adaptation for the days of leanness prevalent in the island cultures, but completely absent in western cultures.

Here are 3 of the best tips to improve a Polynesian Body

1. Exercise, choosing intense weight training over cardio.

Polynesian bodies are designed to work out with maximum intensity. Once or twice a week is sufficient. If you are weight training 5 – 6 days a week, I guarantee that you can train twice as hard once or twice a week. Another way of looking at it is this: If you can weight train for 90 min’s, I assure you, you can train harder for 40 min’s. Remember that you can train hard or you can train long, but you can’t do both. Always choose to train hard. Intense training triggers the release of muscle building hormones into the blood stream. Jane Fonda workouts do not. Polynesian bodies respond well to incredibly intense training regimes performed less often.

2. Don’t eat everyday.

This one may come as a shock to you, especially if you are Polynesian, but it is true. You may have heard that if you don’t eat every few hours then your body goes into starvation mode, yada, yada, yada. Who came up with this idea, did they get the rest of the day off for such brilliance? It is simply not true. Polynesian bodies have descended from a genetic strain of humans that could survive for weeks without food and rest and very little water.

Early man tracked herds over vast expanses, on foot, and when they finally engaged their prey they could somehow muster the strength and energy, in this depleted state, to run down and kill a beast more than ten times their size. I know one thing’s for sure. Put a bunch of these early hominids in the NFL and they would stomp the snot out of those juice heads. We need to tap into that power, and utilize the body’s stored energy.

The idea that you feel tired all the time, and that you need to eat constantly to maintain your energy levels are fabrications of the weak modern mind that prevent us from exploiting the vastness of our true human potential.

3. Eat real, natural, unprocessed foods indigenous to the islands, and eat just enough to be satisfied.

A Polynesian body can store more water, so drink plenty to discourage water retention.

Organic fruits, vegetables, seafood, coconut oil, taro, along with chicken, pork and beef are the mainstay of the Polynesian diet. These are the foods which Polynesian bodies have adapted to assimilate efficiently through hundreds of years of evolution. Polynesians should not consume processed foods. Canned foods and commercially packaged foods combined with the naturally high fat Polynesian diets create metabolic mayhem in the Polynesian body. Eliminate all processed and man made foods gradually.

Through the evolutionary process of natural selection, Polynesian bodies can become the ultimate muscle building powerhouse, or an unsightly storage system for excess energy and water weight. Polynesian bodies can build muscle more efficiently because they possess slightly lower metabolisms, and have a genetic propensity to store more water. Over 70% of muscle is water. This is a wonderful adaptation for gaining muscle mass, but slightly detrimental when the desire is to burn body fat, and flush subcutaneous water. Polynesian bodies also possess a unique hormonal environment that allows muscle gain to take place more effectively. A gift to the contemporary Polynesian body from their ancestors who survived some of the most brutal oceanic endeavors.

To approach genetic potential a Polynesian bodybuilder should train with extreme intensity, less often, control caloric intake and manage their water correctly.

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Age Spot Erasing Made Easy And Right From Your Own Kitchen

If you’re anything like most baby boomers, after graying hair, poor eyesight, weight gain and winkles, age spots rank fifth on your list of aging nuisances. But you can find comfort in erasing those age advertisers right from your own kitchen.

What Causes Age Spots

To protect your skin against excessive sun exposure, your skin makes cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes create the dark brown pigment called melanin. The melanin makes your skin look darker or suntanned.

But sometimes, your typical day in the sun causes an uneven jump in melanocytes. This awkward production creates irregular coloring or pigmentation of the skin.

The resulting solar lentigines, or what most people call liver spots or age spots, can appear brown, black or gray. Age spots pop up on the areas of the skin most readily exposed to the sun, like the chest, back, face and hands.

Even youngsters can get age spots with too much unprotected sun exposure.

How to Avoid Age Spots Completely

Preventing age spots proves the best way to completely avoid them. This includes:

1. Avoiding intense sunlight hours from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.

2. Wearing a hat and long sleeve shirt in the sun.

3. Applying sunscreen 20 minutes before going outdoors and reapplying it every two hours.


Additionally, note that the sun and excess chemicals don’t mix. For instance,

most often in middle-aged women, might mistake irregular areas of reddish-brown pigmentation called poikiloderma for age spots.

Poikiloderma results from chronic sun exposure combined with sun-sensitive chemicals in cosmetics or perfume. Hence, poikiloderma most frequently appears on the side of the neck or on the cheeks.

Sunscreen Is More Potent Than You Thought

You may feel annoyed with the repeated advise of slathering yourself with sunscreen, but a study published in the October 14, 1993 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine gives you reason to appreciate your sunscreen an effective age spot eraser.

In the study, researchers found that among sunscreen users, those who rubbed on the most cream with the greatest regularity had the largest reduction in actinic keratoses.

Actinic keratoses (AKs) describe the rough, red, scaly patches, crusts or sores that measure anywhere from one-quarter to one-inch in diameter. Like most other age spots, you’ll find actinic keratoses on body areas most readily exposed to the sun.

How To Minimize the Appearance of Age Spots

Eat your age spots away

Research studies also reveal the benefits of eating your nutrients to reduce the appearance of age spots. The water-soluble pigment found in most vegetables, fruits, grain, flowers, seeds, leaves and bark, called flavanoid provides numerous antioxidant properties.

In research studies, flavanoids even prevented cancer formation in animals.

Likewise, you’ll find age spot reducing properties in soy products. The protein extracts of soybean and soymilk contain several different estrogen-like substances called isoflavones. One study showed that soy isoflavones might lighten age spots.

Home Remedies

Erasing your age spots can begin right in your own kitchen. In Japan, the rice based drink, sake, serves as an age spot lightener when applied to the skin.

You can also use lemon juice to lighten age spots. Simply dab a cotton ball in freshly squeezed lemon juice and apply the liquid to the age spots twice daily- once in the morning and once in the evening. Warning: Lemon juice makes the skin photosensitive so ensure to protect your skin with sunscreen before enjoying the sunshine.

Pull a green papaya out of the fridge and use the fleshy side of the skin to reduce age spots. Just apply the papaya to the spots for 15-20 minutes daily and repeat until you attain the desire lightness.

Of course, since home remedies offer an inexpensive and gentle way to reduce age spots, they require time to see results- usually six to eight weeks.

What To Do Right Now To Stop Age Spots

Because age spots, poikiloderma and actinic keratoses can serve as warning signs for skin cancer, the American Academy of Dermatology recommends scheduling a professional skin examination each year.

You can find out how to give yourself a skin examination by visiting []. Use this information now before your forget, because before you know it, the sixth aging nuisance for baby boomers- memory loss-will creep in on you.

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Is There a Herpes Cure & How Do You Treat Breakouts Effectively?

There is no herpes cure, and people who have been infected with the virus will carry it in their bodies forever. Throughout a lifetime, an infected person may experience periodic outbreaks of symptoms with varied severity. Many people live with herpes with few or no signs of the virus at all. Although no cure for herpes exists, treatment options for symptoms abound.

Symptoms of herpes can vary from fatigue to painful skin lesions, and there are a variety of products on the market, including both conventional medicines and herbal treatments. Over-the-counter pain medications can help control fever associated with the infection and can help reduce skin discomfort as the virus moves through its natural cycle that usually lasts 2-4 weeks. Prescription antiviral drugs and creams are the closest thing to a herpes cure, since they have been found to be successful in controlling the severity of herpes symptoms, the duration of an outbreak, and the frequency of recurring outbreaks.

Natural treatments can help those suffering from herpes by controlling symptoms until a cure for herpes is found. These natural options are widely available and gaining popularity as they offer the same and sometimes better results than conventional medical treatments. Natural herbal antiviral therapy may offer relief from symptoms without the side effects that can accompany the use of prescription medications. Ice can be used as a natural pain and inflammation reducer. And adequate hydration is probably the most natural herpes cure. Water is necessary to help control fever and to keep the body as healthy as possible as it fights the herpes infection.

Skin lesions caused by the virus have been found to heal most quickly when they are kept clean and dry. Infected areas can be cleaned with soap and warm water, but should be dried well with a towel or a hair dryer on the cool setting to be sure that excess moisture does not prolong the presence of sores on the skin. Salt baths can soothe the skin and encourage the sores to dry up.

Natural prevention of outbreaks almost totally depends upon the strength of the body’s immune system. Stressful events, serious illness, prolonged lack of sleep, and a poor diet can all contribute to the recurrence of a herpes outbreak. Until a herpes cure is found, there is no stronger defense against the disease than the immune system. It’s important that people with herpes commit themselves to a healthy diet that includes vitamin supplements, if needed, reduced emotional stress levels, and adequate sleep and exercise. These behaviors along with treatment for periodic symptoms can help infected persons cope until a herpes cure is found.

Researchers continue to investigate the virus to help develop better treatments, a vaccine, and a cure for herpes. Until then, prevention is the key to controlling the spread of the virus, and effective treatment of the disease’s symptoms is the best way to live a life uninterrupted by herpes.

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